Surgery is not mandatory. A minority of patients go under the knife. Most are treated without surgery. You may be advised to:
Stop Smoking. This is a must and there is no compromise. It is no good to reduce smoking but it is important to totally stop smoking.
Walking program. You may be asked to walk daily for up to 30 minutes including stoppages for pain.
Dietary restrictions – You will be asked to have a healthy diet of fruits and fresh vegetables and avoid fatty greasy fried foods and junk food.
Medication – You may be prescribed blood thinning drugs like Aspirin and clopidogrel along with pain killers if needed.