Symptoms

Signs and symptoms

Deep vein thrombosis

  • Swelling mostly in one leg
  • Leg pain or tenderness
  • Reddish or bluish skin discoloration
  • Leg warm to touch
  • May be asymptomatic

Pulmonary embolism

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Stabbing chest pain worse on taking a deep breath.
  • Rapid heart rate
  • An unexplained cough sometimes with bloody mucus
  • Apprehension, anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Feeling faint
  • Fatigue
  • Some people may be asymptomatic

Signs and symptoms in thrombophilic conditions

Pregnancy loss

  • Recurrent pregnancy loss and miscarriage could be due to clotting disorder (thrombophilia) especially in females with Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus anticoagulants and in women with protein C & S  and antithrombin deficiencies.
  • Pregnancy loss and recurrent miscarriage may be due to excessive clotting in the small placental vessels.

Inherited deficiencies

  • Mesenteric vein clots are rare but characteristic of an inherent clotting disorder.
  • A family history of blood clots.
  • Blood clots in persons under 40 years
  • Neo-natal Purpura fulminans is rare and associated with homozygous protein C & S deficiencies.
  • These patients are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed because of a family history suggestive of a clotting disorder.

Superficial thrombophlebitis

  • They block the blood flow in the veins below the skin causing pain and irritation.
  • Redness and inflammation along the vein may be seen
  • There are warmth, tenderness, and itching along the vein
  • Pain along the vein – throbbing or burning – may interfere with sleep.
  • May develop a fever along with episodes of thrombophlebitis.

Hyperhomocysteinemia

  • Clinical signs are like those of other clotting disorders
  • Patients with significant Hyperhomocysteinemia develop DVT with or without PE in 64%;  superficial thrombophlebitis in 24%; Thrombosis of the mesenteric or cerebral veins in 12%.
  • Clotting signs are associated with other triggering factors like oral contraceptives, trauma/surgery, pregnancy, and immobilization.